This PDF eBook was produced in the year by Tantor Media, Incorporated, which .. The fairy then said to Cinderella, “Well, you see here a carriage fit to. Cinderella's dream of going to the ball was through. Cinderella ran away to the garden to cry. Suddenly, her fairy godmother appeared. With a wave of her wand, . The fairy tale was never told or written explicitly for children. Nowadays its During his lifetime, Disney produced several major animated fairy-tales films: Snow.
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This made the old fairy angry, and she sat there muttering to herself. A young fairy who sat near overheard her angry threats. This good godmother, fearing the. Gaëlle Ledoré Master 1 LCL Anglais-Recherches “Tale as Old as Time”: The Adaptation of Classic Fairy Tales in the Disney Second Golden Age. From Fairy Tales to Disney Movies: Gender Roles and Stereotypes Then and Now . classic fairy tales changed gender stereotypes and role models with the.
She was a very sweet-tempered, good girl, however, and everybody except her cruel sisters loved her. And they made her dress them for the ball, but never thought of allowing her to go there. It was her godmother, a good old Fairy. Bring me a large pumpkin.
Then she desired Cinderella to go to the trap, and bring her a rat. Two mice were turned into footmen; four grasshoppers into white horses. Diamonds shone in her hair and on her neck and arms, and her kind godmother thought she had seldom seen so lovely a girl.
Her old shoes became a charming pair of glass slippers, which shone like diamonds. But remember, you must leave the room before the clock strikes eleven. If you do not your dress will return to its original rags. I approve of pleasure, but not of dissipation, and I expect that you will show your gratitude by obeying me. Then she stepped into her coach and drove off, with her footmen behind, in great style.
The Fairy, when she was gone, returned to Fairyland. The Lord Chamberlain bowed low to her, thinking she must be a very great lady by her dress and carriage, and he showed her at once into the ball-room. She was so beautiful that everybody looked at her, and wondered who she was; and the Prince asked her to dance with him, and afterwards would dance with no one else.
But she made haste to leave a little before the hour fixed, and had time to undress before her sisters came home. They told her a beautiful Princess had been at the ball, with whom the Prince was delighted. They did not know it was Cinderella herself, and she was amused to hear them admire her grace and beauty, and say that they were sure she was a royal lady. The Prince was quite vexed when supper-time came, and he could not find his beautiful partner, and no one had seen her leave the room.
But in hopes of beholding her again, he persuaded the King to give another grand ball. And once more the rat, mice, grasshoppers, and pumpkin which had gone back to their original shapes after the first ball were turned into the grand carriage and attendants, and Cinderella, in rose-coloured satin and rubies, went to the royal ball.
Directly the Prince saw her, he asked her to dance, and would have no other partner, and as he led her past her two unkind sisters, she saw them look at her dress with envious eyes, and knew that they wished they were as beautiful, and as well-dressed as she was.
Agrabah is an imaginary medieval Baghdad, and not the capital of China, where the original tale takes place. Why would the Walt Disney Studios change the setting of a tale into a pseudo-Baghdad during a war against Iraq? Still, it would be strange to make a propaganda movie after the war, and Aladdin was released in , so months after the end of the Gulf War.
The only point that can be truly verified is that there are strong stereotypes which are unacceptable, like the important number of liars in the story: Fortunately for the company, racism tends to disappear behind the entertainment and the magic of the tales.
Who has never read a story about a nasty witch casting a spell on an innocent princess, and a prince Charming to save the unfortunate? The plot of tales always keeps the same structure, whatever the story. Indeed, Vladimir Propp dedicated his essay Morphology of Folk Tale11 about the construction of the narration in Russian popular tales to prove that all tales follow a similar pattern in thirty-one phases: Marguerite Derrida.
Editions du Seuil, first published in It is true that at the beginning of the Disney animated film, the Beast acts like a villain: But after saving Belle from the wolves, he becomes the hero, whereas Gaston, who is not a character from the original tale, replaces him in the role of the villain.
From this point, with a climax at the Pursuit when the villain separates the heroine from the Beast: Moreover, Belle is an only child, so there are no jealous sisters in the Disney adaptation, and nobody to convince the heroine to forget the Beast, who prefers to starve to death rather than live without his lover.
In the tale, the Rescue happens when the Beauty dreams about the dying Beast, a magic dream that the good fairy, the Donor, sent her; but in the film, the Donors are the objects in the castle and Chip the cup manages to free Belle and her father with the wood-cutting machine. The Enchantress does not play any role in the Disney movie and Belle arrives just before the Beast is killed.
For once, the Disney version is darker than the classic tale, for the Beast has to die to redeem himself and resurrect as a human prince.
The problem is that, in the original tale, the Sea-Witch is both the Villain she knows information about the Mermaid, she wants her tongue, and her potion hurts the princess and the Donor she gives the Mermaid a magic potion to help her, and a magical knife to her sisters to break the spell.
Her Transfiguration happens when she dies and becomes a Daughter of Air; only then does she receive the help of the most powerful Donor ever: God Himself. However, this fairy tale was too sad for the optimistic Walt Disney Company, and they preferred to create a happy ending for the film. Because her problem is a villain, Ursula, and not that her prince does not love her back, she just needs to defeat her.
Then, she can marry her human prince and live happily ever after with him. The Disney adaptations of fairy tales respect the codes of plots that Vladimir Propp described in his essay Morphology of Folk Tales, but the scenarists changed the second part of the stories. Whereas the story line remains basically the same, the change of atmosphere, darker or happier than in the tales, and the addition of Donors and Villains differentiate the adaptation from the original work to please the spectator.
A movie is a show, it has to be visually entertaining. They created many secondary characters, both in The Little Mermaid and Beauty and the Beast, and with them many stereotypes about foreigners, and more particularly French people. This idea of a fight between good and evil appears in every Disney production. Thus, the addition of Donors and Villains settles a division between Good and Evil, and so a Manichean point of view on fairy tales.
Good and Evil in Disney Animation A brother and a sister, a princess and a prince, a grandmother and a sea-witch, a good fairy and an evil jinn, a nice mother and a nasty stepmother: Bruno Bettelheim describes this phenomenon as a sort of metamorphosis of the characters: She is indeed the Grandma and the wolf. In the same way, heroes and heroines form the balance between sexes, boys and girls build their sexual identity. Bettelheim justifies his theory with the oedipal conflict, in which the dragon that the knight fights to liberate the damsel in distress i.
The story implies: And the classic fairy tales deconstruct this mechanism. Disney reunites what has been separated. An animated movie is expensive to make and must be short an hour and a quarter to an hour and a half in order not to lose the concentration of young spectators. The animators cannot afford to create too many characters and so they have to sum up the ideas of the classic fairy tales into fewer elements.
But, according to the Disney standards, they also have to create charismatic secondary good characters and terribly tempting villains. How does Disney adapt classic tales to oppose Good and Evil? I No Neutrality in Disney: These neutral characters serve in the narration, but do not choose one side or another.
However, Disney bases its stories on a confrontation between an innocent hero ine and an evil villain. Thus, how did the scenarists and animators transform neutral secondary characters in the tales into auxiliaries or villains? However powerful they are, they are still slaves and they help Aladdin only because he owns the ring and the lamp, which makes him their master. As such, they behave neutrally towards him and protect him against the traps of the magician and his brother.
Aladdin asks the genie of the ring to bring back the palace, and in priority his wife, but the genie answers: In Western countries, jinns are often represented as impressive giants, ready to crush human beings under their feet. On the contrary, Disney likes to humanise everything and anything.
Although some of his roles last only a split second, the Genie actually makes fifty-five transformations throughout the film.
He is omnipotent but for three things: Ah, rule number one: I can't kill anybody. He slices his head off with his finger. So don't ask.
Rule two: I can't make anyone fall in love with anyone else. You little punim, there. Lies flat, then gets up and transforms into a zombie. Rule three: I can't bring people back from the dead. He poofs back to normal.
Other than that, you got it! His role in the film is definitely to help Aladdin like a friend and to entertain the spectator. Yet, his power is limited to three wishes, like the genie in The Thief of Baghdad and there is a sad compensation, his own life is linked to the Lamp and his freedom depends on the good will of his master: You're a prisoner?
It's all part-and-parcel, the whole genie gig. Grows gigantic, voice echoes Phenomenal cosmic powers! Itty bitty living space. Everything in the film makes the Genie a nice secondary character who helps Aladdin not only because the young man is his master according to the rules of the genies, but even more because he has become his friend. Even the fact that he is blue, and not red like an efreet 15, emphasises his soft temper.
The Genie is this sort of fantastic creature everyone would like to have as a best friend rather than using him as a device to rule over the world. A disgraced member of the Court of Atlantica, the mer-folk kingdom, probably for conspiracy, Ursula has been plotting for years to overthrow King Triton as a revenge.
Her goal is only to make the mer- king suffer and manipulates Ariel: Yeeeeeees, hurry home, princess. We wouldn't want to miss old daddy's celebration, now, would we? Celebration indeed. In MY day, we had fantastical feasts when I lived in the palace. And now, look at me - wasted away to practically nothing - banished and exiled and practically starving, while he and his flimsy fish-folk celebrate.
Well, I'll give 'em something to celebrate soon enough. I want you to keep an extra close watch on this pretty little daughter of his. She may be the key to Triton's undoing. Yet, we 15 Evil jinn or infernal spirit, the efreet or ifrit has no soul and works mainly with demons. Jafar as a genie at the end of Aladdin is actually more like an efreet. She was a very intelligent woman but a little too proud of her rank: Otherwise, she was a most praiseworthy woman, and she took excellent care of her grandchildren, the little princesses.
This argument induces the Mermaid to accept the pain of her tail tearing apart to become legs. But you shall have your wish, for it will bring you misery, little princess. If you are willing to suffer all this, then I can help you. She acts like a sadistic fairy-godmother and gives the Mermaid some advice about how to seduce a man without speaking: You have the most beautiful voice of all those who live in the ocean. I suppose you have thought of using that to charm your prince; but that voice you will have to give to me.
I want the most precious thing you have to pay for my potion. Your graceful walk and your lovely eyes. Speak with them and you will be able to capture a human heart. We can note a balance between life and death: The main difference is that Ursula convinces Ariel that she proposes her a fair bargain and that a voice is useless to seduce a man.
Ironically, she talks and sings to Ariel to persuade her, proving that a voice is extremely important to quickly reach a goal: I'm not asking much. Just a token, really, a trifle. You'll never even miss it. What I want from you is. My voice? You've got it, sweetcakes. No more talking, singing, zip. But without my voice, how can I - Ursula: You'll have your looks! Your pretty face!
And don't underestimate the importance of body language! Still, Ursula is a villain, contrary to the Grandmother and even the Sea-Witch, who does not hide the truth about the bargain and so blames the Mermaid herself for her conduct.
Ursula is an example of two neutral characters used to form a devil-like, and yet charismatic villain. As a result, she is the first villain to be represented alone on a product, without the hero ine ; indeed, she is one of the most popular Disney villains, along with the Evil Queen Snow White and the Seven Dwarves, , Maleficent Sleeping Beauty, , Scar The Lion King, and Hades Hercules, With Ursula began a new trademark, better appreciated by adult spectators: The Disney Villains Designer Collection, From left to right: II Religion in Disney: They represent evil and show the spectators what not to do to live happily ever after.
To emphasise these traits, Disney tried to demonise them. After all, who represent more evil than the Devil himself? This is not far from Mephistopheles and his contract to get the soul of innocents, more especially since speech is an ability which separates humans from animals, like the soul according to Christian beliefs.
In fact, the contract signed by the young mermaid serves as a decoy to catch King Triton and his magical trident. Ursula offers King Triton to sacrifice himself to save his daughter. But The Little Mermaid is not the only tale whose villain has been demonised in the extreme. In Aladdin, the villain is Jafar. This totally evil Royal Vizier of Agrabah, counsellor of the Sultan, head of the royal guard and sorcerer in his spare time, is a slender man who wears a black and red robe and black turban with a red feather, and looks like the symbol on his stick, a snake; these colours and the analogy with a snake relates him to the Devil, just like Ursula.
His goal is clear: It would not be so particular with a European sovereign, but a sultan is both a powerful authority and a spiritual leader: Actually, Jafar just needs the title, for he completely manipulates the Sultan already, he does not want to be remembered only as an eternal second fiddle.
This punishment relates to the fall of Lucifer, who wanted to prove God that he was the most perfect angel of the Creation. Lucifer was damned, changed his beautiful appearance for that of a demon and became Satan; he was also doomed to stay in the core of Hell Ezekiel From a sorcerer to a giant snake and then to an efreet, Jafar evolves from a bad man to an actual demon. However, he was not invented exclusively for the animated movie. Two characters from the original tale correspond to his personality: See also Isaiah Yet, the second character who influences Jafar, the Grand Vizier, is a neutral character.
But the Grand Vizier actually represents no danger for the couple, as he does not even look for revenge after Aladdin tricks his son on the wedding night and wins the hand of Badroulbadour. He carries on advising the Sultan without failure nor treachery and warns his sovereign about the dangers of magic.
Once again, the influence of The Thief of Baghdad was decisive in the creation of Aladdin. After the Sultan, Jafar always a second rate is the closest character from the film. Jaffar wants to overthrow the power of Ahmad and the Sultan of Basra; and why not marry the beautiful Princess after giving her a potion so she would forget her lover.
Indirectly, he is a kind of Grand Vizier from the original tale who has turned so bad as to try to kill his rival in order to marry the princess himself. Moreover, he does not stand for a father figure for Aladdin, as the passage in the Cave of Wonders represents more a rebirth Aladdin turns into Prince Ali Ababwa soon after leaving the cave than an entry into adulthood. Jafar was simplified into an ambitious sorcerer behind the facade of a royal vizier, so that the spectators could identify him as a thoroughly devilish villain without doubting or having compassion for him.
III Anthropomorphism in Disney: However, one double personality was already made in its original tale: As such, the Beast in the Disney version of Beauty and the Beast changes significantly from all the princes of other adaptations of tales so far. Actually, there is no description of the Beast in any version of the tale, though Mme de Villeneuve gave him a reptilian body; for Bruno Bettelheim, the comparison with a snake refers to the sexual impulsions of the young prince: The prince had been turned into a snake because, as a phallic animal, it is a symbol for sexual lust which seeks satisfaction without benefit of a human relation, and also because it uses its victim solely for its own purposes, as did the snake in paradise.
And here is the main difference between the tales and the animated version: On the contrary, when The Enchantress turned him into a monster, she punished him for his selfishness and scorn, as he rejected her as an old beggar, looking for a place to stay for the night in exchange for a rose.
It is about redemption. And according to Christian religions, one has to redeem oneself to enter heaven. Moreover, the only evidence of the existence of the prince behind the monster is the torn-down portrait in the West Wing, of which she admires the eyes. The redemption of the Beast is developed with an evolution of the his behaviour throughout the film thanks to his clothes and posture. Indeed, the more he opens his heart to Belle, the more elegant he dresses and stands; when he first appears to Maurice, the Beast walks on all fours and only wears a dark red cape and black trousers, showing his aggressiveness and savagery.
After saving Belle from the wolves, he walks on two legs, changes his red cape, for a blue one, the colour of royalty and dreams, and puts on a white shirt. Finally, during the climatic love scene, the romantic dinner, the Beast wears a complete aristocratic blue suit and even ties his head fur in an 18th century hair style.
Step by step, love and hope transform the Beast into a human again. Here again, the influence of Christian beliefs is obvious: On the contrary, despair would induce eternal damnation. If the Beast gave up and did not find true love, his eternal damnation would have been to stay as a monster forever.
However, the Beast is not alone and can count on many characters who are not in the original tale. An empty palace would not entertain the spectators and thus Disney managed to create many more characters and yet left Belle as the only human in the castle. How so? The new characters are the enchanted objects of the castle: Thus, all the subjects and servants of the Prince who were present on that day were transformed and cannot become human again except if the Beast redeems himself.
Andy Knight. Walt Disney Home Entertainment, , a direct-to-video film happening just after that the Beast saved Belle from the wolves, the Enchantress cursed the castle on Christmas Eve, which could explain why the whole principality was there, as there are thousands of living objects in Beauty and the Beast.
They whisper what to say and how to behave, just like Jiminy Cricket in Pinocchio , who acts like a conscience for the wooden boy. Light represents both wisdom the 18th century is the climax of the Enlightenment , life, faith the light of the Holy Ghost and hope church candles and guiding lights ; warmth has an abstract meaning of kindness and sympathy; and correctness suggests perfect manners and virtue. Thus, it is not surprising to see them as conscience and sorts of guardian angels for the Beast, for he has to acquire all these qualities to learn to love and be loved in return.
Walt Disney, dir. Buena Vista Home Entertainment, A talking cricket warns him of the dangers of disobedience, but Pinocchio kills it with a hammer; its ghost carries on advising the puppet, though.
The predominance of love and hope, and the voices of conscience, relate all to Christian beliefs and lessons. He died four days after the release of the film, which is now dedicated to him; at the end of the credits is written: Howard Ashman — Now that Walt Disney is no more, the new animators try to honour his memory and create an artistic link to heaven. Thus, their heroes have to win their salvation fighting devil-like villains, thanks to their dreams hope and their want for love.
However, many critics attacked the Disney Manichaeism as unrealistic and dangerous for the development of children. Some others criticised the conservatism of the film. After his death, composer Alan Menken worked with Tim Rice for the other songs of the film. They sing cheerfully with nice little animals until a handsome prince saves them from some jealous witch and carries them to his castle on a majestic white horse.
Since Snow White and the Seven Dwarves , the different waves of Feminism accuse the Walt Disney Company of transmitting messages against the rights and development of women, more especially after the Second World War.
The Second Wave of Feminism, which fought mainly for the right to abortion and contraception and the criminalisation of domestic abuses, fell in the s; thus, a Third Wave emerged to struggle for equality between men and women and to emphasise the role of women of coulour. In the s, a period of radical changes, did Disney preserve a conservative depiction of women or did they evolve?
After all, it was at the turning point between the Second and Third Waves that Disney created, thirty years after Aurora, their new heroines: Ariel, Belle and Jasmine. I Ariel and Patriarchal Society The role of the Mermaid in the tale and in the film differs dramatically from one another.
Whereas the heroine of the tale sacrifices all she has, included her family and life, for the happiness of the one she loves, Ariel is represented as a stubborn teenager in conflict with her old father. In the Disney version, it is King Triton who sacrifices his powers and kingdom to save his daughter, and his family unity for her happiness. But where is the king in the tale?
He does not act nor has real power on the action. In a way, the prince seems to be barely a pretext to the plot and the king of the ocean is even less present. She understands her faults at the end, as her father gives her the freedom she longed for. Here, no Grandmother, a dead mother, and merely present sisters The only two female characters are Ariel and Ursula.
But, we have already seen that Ursula was created from both the sea-witch and the Grandmother. That makes her an influential female figure for the young girl. The problem is: Ursula uses her to conquer the power of the King, and so gain the power on men.
Triton and Sebastian. However, we can note that Ursula remains the only female villain of the Disney Renaissance. The main common point between the original tale and the film is the mermaid giving up her 24 Even though the sisters all have names in the film and play an important role in The Little Mermaid: I barely feel the need to make an argument here. Ursula was the bad guy in the film.
Rarely especially in the cut and dry, black and white world of Disney morality do we ever see the bad guys advice as being a good idea. Furthermore, Ariel's best attempts to utilize her body and beauty to ensnare Eric result in absolutely nothing. It is not until she regains her voice that Eric falls in love with her, it is her voice, her intellectual presence that he is attracted too.
But there, the adaptation differs from the tale: Ariel gets Eric in the end, contrary to the Mermaid. Thus, her sacrifice was finally worth it, as she succeeds to fulfill her dream.
And what a dream, indeed! Like the previous princesses, her ambition is to marry the prince, even more than to become human.
The Mermaid of the tale had a good reason, she wanted to get a soul; but Ariel just wants to leave her father and marry at sixteen. From the father to the husband, the princess still dwells in the patriarchal society and think she will gain a fake freedom. Yet, Eric has little personality. Furthermore, we would like to point out a specific scene of the film: A proof that he did not judge her for her beauty, even if he finds her lovely.
Fortunately, the carriage ends up on the other edge and they carry on quietly, Ariel still driving. At first, this scene seems anecdotal, but apart from the comic of situation it is rare to watch a prince upside-down in his carriage , the message is quite clear and the pit symbolises a dramatic change.
It looks dangerous to give women the power, but if men would give it without any struggle all greed apart, Ursula would not have conspired if Triton had shared the huge ocean with her , women would lead the world peacefully in the end.
The Little Mermaid shows the turning point of the s in the form and the substance. Even if it is still a bit hesitating, the Disney Renaissance begins and after Ariel, Disney princesses will never be damsels in distress again. Ariel is definitely more self-confident than her prince. II Belle: She deserves well her name of Beauty, but she is even more remarkable for her intellect and wit. Contrary to Snow White, Aurora and Ariel, she was not born a princess and she is even the first one not to be born noble at all.
She lives a simple life, takes care of her old father and escapes the monotonous life of the village through reading fairy tales and fantastic novels.
Independent, curious and imaginative, she cannot stand to stay with narrow-minded villagers, who worship Gaston for his strength and appearance, and think like him that a reading lady is abnormal. A lot of the earlier princesses, you know, Snow White or Cinderella, things would happen to them and they were more reactive.
And I think starting with The Little Mermaid, they tended to be more pro-active, more involved in the story.
The others are just here to be handsome and love the princess. Although they live happily ever after with nice young ladies, that is not a completely gratifying role. The Beast is as important as Belle, if not more. The co-director of the film, Kirk Wise, gave this answer: There was this question: New York: ArtMedia Production, Yet, there is one issue: Indeed, the major criticism of this adaptation is the potential message about domestic abuse. His behavior is, without question, frankly and terribly abusive.
And yet the whole thrust of the story is that she returns to him, that she socializes him, that she excuses him, that she reinterprets his rage and his abuse as temper; that she reinterprets his personality as tender and vulnerable. And then that she falls in love with him.
The only reason she comes back to the palace is because the Beast saves her from the wolves and risks his life for her. Even then does she quarrels with him, answering back his protestations: That hurts! In counterpoint If you'd hold still, it wouldn't hurt as much. Well if you hadn't run away, this wouldn't have happened! Well if you hadn't frightened me, I wouldn't have run away! Well you should learn to control your temper! BEAST raises his hand to bring out another point, but finds he has none, so he bows his head down again.
From this tiny hope that Belle brings him, he decides to change, not only to break his curse, but also to make her happy. Moreover, Belle changes her behaviour regarding the Beast as well: The evolution of their relationship takes time and needs mutual respect. And yet, that is not enough to make her fall in love with him; otherwise, the spell would have broken much earlier.
Belle opposes the Beast until he changes his behaviour. But he will not change before fighting his own fears and hoping for his redemption. Before falling in love with the Beast, Belle has to face the real image of machismo and abuse: Belle, it's about time you got your head out of those books tossing book into the mud and paid attention to more important things Actually, the final part of this extract shows that he is afraid of the education of women, because he knows he would be intellectually dominated.
But it fails, Belle rejects him all the more for his cruel and abusive manners, and Gaston uses his only answer to any situation: He locks Belle and Maurice up in their cellar and decides to kill the Beast.
This way, he acts more like an animal than the Beast himself. And whereas the Beast is rewarded for his mercy and turns back into a human, Gaston accidentally kills himself and falls down the roof into the deep moats; he dies violently for having acted with violence and cruelty. We can wonder about a possible message against death penalty, as the theme is also present in Aladdin, in which Jasmine accuses Jafar from power abuse for having beheaded the hero which is a lie from Jafar himself ; the Sultan, who is at the same time a political authority and a representative of Prophet Muhammad, reprimands his Royal Vizier and orders him to consult him before sentencing people to death.
This way, we can see that Jasmine seems to be even more powerful and determined than Belle. Independence and Seduction Princess Jasmine, the only daughter and heir of the Sultan of Agrabah, contrasts a lot with the other Disney Princesses, even Ariel and Belle. Firstly, she is the first Disney heroine who is not White, nor European. She even rejects the hero, Aladdin, when he plays the role of Prince Ali Ababwa, as she prefers his true identity of generous thief.
Moreover, she protests against the patriarchal society; in the introduction scene of Jasmine and Sultan, in which they quarrel about the suitors, Jasmine points out the imperfection of the system: Dearest, you've got to stop rejecting every suitor that comes to call.
The law says you By your next birthday. The law is wrong. You've only got three more days! Father, I hate being forced into this. Jasmine, it's not only this law. Try to understand. I've never done a thing on my own. Thus, Jasmine longs for independence from men, she wants to make her own choices and not to submit herself to a husband. He thinks his daughter is not strong enough to take care of herself and that only a husband could do that for her.
Jasmine rejects all royal suitors, even Ali Ababwa, for she wants to stay independent from men. Aladdin has to show his real self and worth to seduce her.
Yet, if Aladdin stands for what Jasmine desires most, is she truly independent from men? Jafar is the villain, his actions are not supposed to be appreciated; on the contrary, it teaches what not to do to women. She is beautiful and she knows it. Moreover, she also knows that a desirable woman can easily fool and manipulate men. Yet, she uses her beauty to seduce men, but only to humiliate them for their conduct: What is the more sexist: It is important to remember that the Disney animated films are just full-length cartoons, and as such they parody and caricature the world and people, men as women.
In fact, they look a lot like the Bimbettes, the superficial blond triplets who love Gaston in Beauty and the Beast. They fight for their dreams instead being foils and waiting for a prince to wake them up. The heroes carry on saving them, otherwise they would not be true heroes, but the princesses save them in return and so they become true heroines themselves. But there is still some enhancement left to make, and Disney just needs more time to develop stronger and stronger heroines.
Society cannot change overnight and neither can animation. The Disney Renaissance heroines are just the beginning of a new kind of princesses and the following ones keep changing for the best from one another, refusing to marry at all for Merida, the 11 th Disney Princess since May 11th, Unfortunately, the Walt Disney Company goes as far as to change the designs of their own princesses, just to sell new products.
The new Disney Princesses look thinner, wears jewelry and make-up even Pocahontas and new hair-styles. We are far from the simplicity and humility of the original designs, in which the extraordinary beauty of the Disney heroines made explicit their inner beauty. Disney is destroying its own values Merida does not feature on this image, for her new design shocked so much the fans that Disney preferred to remove her new design from the group image.
The new team of scenarists and animators rewrote the tales to keep the themes dear to the creator of the Walt Disney Company: Love, Hope, Magic and the victory of Good over Evil.
But, contrary to the Nine Old Men, they also modernised the characters and made stronger Disney Princesses, so that the tales could relate to the contemporary world. Indeed, at the beginning of the s, society was changing; women claimed more than ever gender equality, the Cold War ended and the West opened towards the East.
The development of Globalisation gave new options to artists, thanks to cultural trade. After Aladdin, the first adaptation of an Oriental tale, Disney ceased to work on fairy tales for seventeen years and began to choose even more exotic places for their new and original creations. Thus, the Disney Renaissance found its heroes not only in Europe The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, , and Hercules, , but in all the other inhabited continents: Cinema critics and spectators applauded the films of the Disney Renaissance with much enthusiasm, more especially the three movies we studied in this thesis.
Then, he founded with Steven Spielberg and David Geffen a harsh competitor: Their first blow happened in with The Prince of Egypt, an ambitious full-length animated film, inspired by the book of Exodus in the Bible. The Walt Disney Company waited until before making a new adaptation of a fairy tales.
It is the last hand-drawn Disney full-length film, as the company bought Pixar in Reading the original story, it is quite sure that the themes of Hope and the struggle between Good and Evil will appear in Frozen. Disney reinvents the tales and extends the memory of these ancient stories.
Most children know first the Disney versions before the originals and so discover the imaginary worlds they need to develop their identity. The problem is that they tend to know only the Disney, or recognise only Disney characters, because of the marketing around them. This could in fact erase the fairy tales collections and the other artistic influences from popular culture.
Let us hope that Disney will remain a studio that makes creative movies, not just blockbusters to earn money. After all, Walt Disney himself declared: His father, a humble tailor had died prematurely, because he was worried about his son: Aladdin preferred to play all day long with other teenagers rather than learning how to sew and have an honest job.
One day, an African magician comes to Aladdin, and pretends to be his long lost uncle. The magician offers Aladdin new clothes and decides to make a merchant out of him; everyday, he brings him to the commercial part of the city, so that the boy could listen how the rich merchants run their business. But someday, instead of the shops, the magician brings him to beautiful gardens. They walk the whole day and arrive in front of two mountains with a valley between them. The magician advises him not to touch anything before arriving to an orchard, where an oil lamp he was looking for stood, or he would instantaneously die.
Then, he gives him one of his rings. In the orchard, Aladdin gathers some fruits and takes the lamp. Once back at the mouth of the cave, the magician orders him to give him the lamp, but Aladdin wants to get out of the cave first and refuses.
Furious, the magician puts more powder in the fire and seals back the slab on Aladdin. For two days, the boy prays to God to save him; involuntarily, he rubs the ring of the magician and a terrible genie appears. This Slave of the Ring asks what Aladdin desires and, as soon as he answers that he wants to escape from the place, he is teleported outside.
The next day, Aladdin tell his mother about the evil magician, and shows her the lamp and the fruits, which actually are precious stones. Yet, the widow and her son have never seen jewels and think they are worthless.
Aladdin gives his mother the lamp, saying that once cleaned, she should sell it so they could download some food. The poor widow wipes it clean and another genie, even more terrifying than the Slave of the Ring, appears.
Aladdin takes the lamp and orders the Slave of the Lamp to find them some food. The jinn returns with many silver plates and bowls with wonderful meals. One day, the Sultan of the city orders his subjects to stay at home and close their shutter, as his daughter Badroulbadour is going to the public bath.
Aladdin is so eager to see the princess that he disobeys and hides himself behind the door of the bath. Badroulbadour unveils her face and reveals her beauty. Aladdin runs home at once, madly in love, claiming that he wants to marry the princess. On the sixth day, the Sultan spots her and asks why she has come. The widow presents the jewels and explains the passion of her son towards Badroulbadour. On the night of festivity, Aladdin orders the Slave of the Lamp to bring him the bridegroom and his bride as soon as they get in their bed.
At the end of the third month, Aladdin sends his mother to the Sultan, who asks again for more jewels, but also for many precious plates and slaves. Aladdin summons the genie of the lamp and orders for twice as requested. He adds personal slaves for him and his mother, rich clothes and a horse, and then leaves for the palace. The Sultan welcomes him warmly and decides to organise the wedding on that day, but Aladdin refuses because he claims that the princess needs a palace worthy of her beauty.
The genie makes the most extraordinary palace and finishes it on the next day. Thus, Badroulbadour gladly obeys her father and marries Aladdin. He travels to China, determined to steal the artifact and have his revenge over the idle boy. When he reaches the amazing palace, he disguises as a trader, giving new lamps against old ones. Aladdin is hunting and has left the magic lamp in the main hall; Badroulbadour and her slaves laugh at such a ridiculous bargain and exchange the magic lamp.
Once in his possession, the magician orders the genie to transport the palace and its inhabitants in Africa. However, the boy is so popular that the people threatens the soldiers and the Sultan accepts to free him.
He gives Aladdin forty days to bring back Badroulbadour.